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System Preparation

Basic requirements

The required operating system is a contemporary GNU/Linux distribution. This installation guide assumes that you use Debian 10 (Buster), with a non-root dataman user account created (there is a section on how to create that user).

Moreover, the n6 infrastructure depends on:

  • RabbitMQ (an AMQP message broker),
  • MariaDB (a SQL database server) with the TokuDB engine.

To run some of the n6 components it is also required to have installed:

  • MongoDB (a NoSQL database server),
  • Apache2 (a web server).


RabbitMQ is an open source message broker software (sometimes called message-oriented middleware) that implements the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP). RabbitMQ is responsible for communication between most of the n6 components.


$ apt-get install gnupg2 apt-transport-https curl
$ curl | apt-key add -
$ echo "deb buster main" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/bintray.rabbitmq.list
$ echo "deb buster erlang-22.x" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/bintray.erlang.list
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install rabbitmq-server

RabbitMQ is by default attached to systemd and is running after an installation. To see if rabbitmq-server process is running, check its status through the systemctl command, its value should be: active (running):

$ systemctl status rabbitmq-server
● rabbitmq-server.service - RabbitMQ broker
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/rabbitmq-server.service; enabled; vendor preset:
   Active: active (running) since Fri 2020-01-10 16:32:54 CET; 12min ago
 Main PID: 4771 (beam.smp)
   Status: "Initialized"
    Tasks: 84 (limit: 4689)
   Memory: 94.9M
   CGroup: /system.slice/rabbitmq-server.service
           ├─4771 /usr/lib/erlang/erts-10.6.1/bin/beam.smp -W w -A 64 -MBas ageffcbf -M
           ├─5019 erl_child_setup 32768
           ├─5042 inet_gethost 4
           └─5043 inet_gethost 4


Enable necessary plugins, like SSL or management panel plugin:

$ /usr/sbin/rabbitmq-plugins enable \
    rabbitmq_management \
    rabbitmq_management_agent \
    rabbitmq_auth_mechanism_ssl \
    rabbitmq_federation \
    rabbitmq_federation_management \
    rabbitmq_shovel \

The following plugins have been configured:

Applying plugin configuration to rabbit@pw-ups02...
The following plugins have been enabled:

started 8 plugins.


If you do not provide a configuration file for RabbitMQ, default values will be used. Or you can use the example configuration from n6/etc/rabbitmq/conf/rabbitmq.conf, by copying the file to /etc/rabbitmq. Restart the rabbitmq-server process afterwards:

$ sudo service rabbitmq-server restart

To ensure everything is OK, sign in to the RabbitMQ web management interface through your web browser. The default address is http://localhost:15672, or https://localhost:15671 if you have used the example config. You can use default guest credentials:

default user: guest
default password: guest

Or you can create a new user, allow them to use the Management GUI and give them read/write permissions to resources within / vhost:

$ sudo rabbitmqctl add_user <username> <password>
$ sudo rabbitmqctl set_user_tags <username> management
$ sudo rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p / example ".*" ".*" ".*"

To make the new user an administrator, set him the administrator tag:

$ sudo rabbitmqctl set_user_tags <username> administrator


n6 uses two SQL databases - event database and Auth DB. The event database primarily stores processed information about network events and possible security incidents, also their relation to organizations linked to clients. The Auth DB database is used for client authorization. It stores clients’ permissions and information about allowed resources (allowed API endpoints, allowed subsources).

$ apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver 0xF1656F24C74CD1D8
$ add-apt-repository 'deb buster main'
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install dirmngr \
    libjemalloc-dev \
    libjemalloc2 \
    mariadb-server-10.3 \
    mariadb-plugin-tokudb \

Check whether mariadb is controlled by systemd. To check whether mariadb is running, look for its status, it should be active.

# systemctl status mariadb
● mariadb.service - MariaDB 10.3.21 database server
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
  Drop-In: /etc/systemd/system/mariadb.service.d
           └─migrated-from-my.cnf-settings.conf, tokudb.conf
   Active: active (running) since Wed 2020-01-15 14:24:36 CET; 14s ago
     Docs: man:mysqld(8)
  Process: 6640 ExecStartPre=/usr/bin/install -m 755 -o mysql -g root -d /var/run/mysqld (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 6641 ExecStartPre=/bin/sh -c systemctl unset-environment _WSREP_START_POSITION (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 6643 ExecStartPre=/bin/sh -c [ ! -e /usr/bin/galera_recovery ] && VAR= ||   VAR=`/usr/bin/galera_recovery`; [ $? -eq 0 ]   && systemctl set-environment _WSREP_START_POSITION=$VAR || exit 1 (code=exite
  Process: 6689 ExecStartPost=/bin/sh -c systemctl unset-environment _WSREP_START_POSITION (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 6691 ExecStartPost=/etc/mysql/debian-start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 6655 (mysqld)
   Status: "Taking your SQL requests now..."
    Tasks: 32 (limit: 4689)
   Memory: 92.2M
   CGroup: /system.slice/mariadb.service
           └─6655 /usr/sbin/mysqld

Initialize system database

In this step we create databases and their tables. Stop database’s processes:

# systemctl stop mariadb

The -u argument passes a username by which the mysql will be run as:

# /usr/bin/mysql_install_db -u mysql
Installing MariaDB/MySQL system tables in '/var/lib/mysql' ...

You can find additional information about the MySQL part at:
Consider joining MariaDB's strong and vibrant community:


[ERROR] TokuDB is not initialized because jemalloc is not loaded

There are a few solutions. Check for Check for Transparent HugePage Support on Linux and this section about libjemalloc.

Make sure that you have installed libjemalloc library:

$ apt-get install -y libjemalloc2

Find location of libjemalloc2:

$ ls -l /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ | grep libjemalloc
-rw-r--r--  1 root root   646352 Feb 23  2019

Edit its location in /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/tokudb.cnf as follows:

malloc-lib= /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/

Check for Transparent HugePage Support. It should be disabled - option [never]

$ cat /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled
always madvise [never]

You can disable it with:

$ echo never > /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled
$ echo never > /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag

Try the system database initialization script again:

$ LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ /usr/bin/mysql_install_db -u mysql

Start database processes again:

$ systemctl start mariadb

Make sure you have access to database:

$ mysql -u root -p<your_password>

Check that the tokudb plugin is active in MySQL prompt:

> show plugins;


n6 uses MongoDB as archival database. Events gathered by collectors will be stored in MongoDB and can be restored in case of errors.

Installation steps below are based on Install MongoDB Community Edition on Debian solution.

To install MongoDB do the following (as root):

$ wget -qO - | sudo apt-key add -
$ echo "deb buster/mongodb-org/4.2 main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-4.2.list
$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install -y mongodb-org

Check MongoDB version. n6 supports versions 4.2.*:

$ mongod --version
db version v4.2.3
git version: a0bbbff6ada159e19298d37946ac8dc4b497eadf
OpenSSL version: OpenSSL 1.1.1d  10 Sep 2019
allocator: tcmalloc
modules: none
build environment:
    distmod: debian10
    distarch: x86_64
    target_arch: x86_64

Create a default storage for MongoDB:

$ mkdir -p /data/db

Try to run the mongod process:

$ mongod

Successfull output should looks similar to the output below:

$ mongod
2019-09-05T14:20:54.360+0200 I STORAGE  [main] Max cache overflow file size custom option: 0
2019-09-05T14:20:54.362+0200 I CONTROL  [main] Automatically disabling TLS 1.0, to force-enable TLS 1.0 specify --sslDisabledProtocols 'none'
2019-09-05T14:20:54.367+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] MongoDB starting : pid=9303 port=27017 dbpath=/data/db 64-bit host=pw-ups02
2019-09-05T14:20:54.367+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] db version v4.0.12
2019-09-05T14:20:54.368+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] git version: 5776e3cbf9e7afe86e6b29e22520ffb6766e95d4
2019-09-05T14:20:54.368+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] OpenSSL version: OpenSSL 1.1.1c  28 May 2019
2019-09-05T14:20:54.368+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] allocator: tcmalloc
2019-09-05T14:20:54.368+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] modules: none
2019-09-05T14:20:54.368+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten] build environment:
2019-09-05T14:20:54.368+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten]     distmod: debian92
2019-09-05T14:20:54.368+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten]     distarch: x86_64
2019-09-05T14:20:54.368+0200 I CONTROL  [initandlisten]     target_arch: x86_64
2019-09-05T14:20:55.039+0200 I STORAGE  [initandlisten] createCollection: local.startup_log with generated UUID: 7f6a72d1-57a7-4b12-842d-cd2e91959df6
2019-09-05T14:20:55.069+0200 I FTDC     [initandlisten] Initializing full-time diagnostic data capture with directory '/data/db/'
2019-09-05T14:20:55.085+0200 I NETWORK  [initandlisten] waiting for connections on port 27017
2019-09-05T14:20:55.088+0200 I STORAGE  [LogicalSessionCacheRefresh] createCollection: config.system.sessions with generated UUID: ebd42929-32e9-41e2-a818-8b0c6b8d7393
2019-09-05T14:20:55.132+0200 I INDEX    [LogicalSessionCacheRefresh] build index on: config.system.sessions properties: { v: 2, key: { lastUse: 1 }, name: "lsidTTLIndex", ns: "config.system.sessions", expireAfterSeconds: 1800 }
2019-09-05T14:20:55.132+0200 I INDEX    [LogicalSessionCacheRefresh]     building index using bulk method; build may temporarily use up to 500 megabytes of RAM
2019-09-05T14:20:55.136+0200 I INDEX    [LogicalSessionCacheRefresh] build index done.  scanned 0 total records. 0 secs

Terminate (Ctrl + C) and start MongoDB with systemd:

$ systemctl start mongod
$ systemctl status mongod
● mongod.service - MongoDB Database Server
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mongod.service; disabled; vendor preset: enabled
   Active: active (running) since Tue 2020-01-14 18:12:21 CET; 1min 22s ago
 Main PID: 21281 (mongod)
   Memory: 81.6M
   CGroup: /system.slice/mongod.service
           └─21281 /usr/bin/mongod --config /etc/mongod.conf

Jan 14 18:12:21 debian systemd[1]: Started MongoDB Database Server.

Check if you are able to connect to MongoDB console:

$ mongo
MongoDB shell version v4.0.14
connecting to: mongodb://
Implicit session: session { "id" : UUID("eeb1d020-955c-4b74-9c00-729c0da188f9") }
MongoDB server version: 4.2.3

Apache HTTP server

n6 uses Apache as an HTTP server for services like n6 REST API, n6 Portal API or n6 Admin Panel N6RestAPI or N6AdminPanel.

$ sudo apt-get install apache2 libapache2-mod-wsgi

Check if the apache2 service is ran by systemd:

$ systemctl status apache2
● apache2.service - The Apache HTTP Server
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Tue 2020-01-14 18:07:49 CET; 27min ago
 Main PID: 20852 (apache2)
    Tasks: 55 (limit: 4689)
   Memory: 13.7M
   CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service
           ├─20852 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
           ├─20854 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
           └─20855 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start

Jan 14 18:07:49 debian systemd[1]: Starting The Apache HTTP Server...
Jan 14 18:07:49 debian apachectl[20848]: AH00558: apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
Jan 14 18:07:49 debian systemd[1]: Started The Apache HTTP Server.

While apache2 is running, enable required modules:

Enable modules:

$ /usr/sbin/a2enmod ssl
Enabling module socache_shmcb.
Enabling module ssl.
$ /usr/sbin/a2enmod rewrite
Enabling module rewrite.

To run modules you need to reload/restart apache2:

$ systemctl restart apache2

Debian dependencies and tools

You should install the essential Debian packages:


Add the “contrib” repository in /etc/apt/sources.list if needed.

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install \
    build-essential \
    curl \
    default-libmysqlclient-dev \
    git \
    iputils-ping \
    libattr1-dev \
    libcurl4-openssl-dev \
    libffi-dev \
    libfuse-dev \
    libgeoip1 \
    libsasl2-dev \
    libssl-dev \
    libxml2-dev \
    libxslt1-dev \
    libyajl2 \
    nodejs \
    npm \
    pkg-config \
    python \
    python2.7-dev \
    python-mysqldb \
    python-pastedeploy \
    python-pip \
    python-pycurl \
    python-setuptools \
    python-virtualenv \
    rsyslog \
    ssh \
    sudo \
    supervisor \
    swig \
$ sudo apt-get clean

Creating the dataman user

Let n6 be run by the dataman OS user. First, let us create its initial login group:

$ /usr/sbin/groupadd dataman

Now, when creating the dataman user, let us ensure that the user is also added to the www-data group (so that access to Apache‘s files is granted).

$ /usr/sbin/useradd -rm \
    -d /home/dataman \
    -s /bin/bash \
    -p '' \
    -g dataman \
    -G www-data \

We will keep the n6 repository in the dataman‘s home directory.

Add dataman to the www-data group, make the necessary directories, and set appropriate permissions:

$ /usr/sbin/usermod -a -G dataman www-data
$ mkdir /home/dataman/env/.python-eggs
$ chown dataman:www-data /home/dataman/env/.python-eggs
$ chmod 775 /home/dataman/env/.python-eggs
$ chown -R www-data:www-data /etc/apache2/sites-available/
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